Wednesday, March 18, 2020

The Influence of Brunonianism essays

The Influence of Brunonianism essays In Europe at the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth a significant change was taking place in the perception, description, definition, and ordering of medical knowledge. It is during this time that John Brown (1735-1788) founded the Brunonian system or theory of medicine. According to which, physical life consists in a peculiar excitability, the normal excitement produced by all the agents which affect the body constituting the healthy condition, while all diseases arise either from deficiency or from excess of excitement, and must be treated with stimulants or sedatives. Basically, John Brown developed a new school of therapy, which, simplified matters for the modern physicians, and allowed medicine to be practiced on a whole new level. Two of the most important sources for the life of John Brown are the accounts by Thomas Beddoes (a Bristol physician), and that by Browns son, William Cullen Brown. John Brown was born in 1735 (or 36) in the town of Buncle in the county of Berwick in Scotland (note: Browns early biographers give conflicting accounts of the date and village of his birth.) Born to poor parents, Brown did not have too many options, and was apprenticed to a weaver. He soon left his employment, however, and went to a nearby grammar school because, as his son put it, to one so highly cultivated; it may be readily conceived how truly disgusting the sordid life of one of the lowest mechanical businesses must have proved. Brown is credited with a reputation for great physical and mental strength. Soon after, he went to Edinburgh and entered the divinity classes at the university, supporting himself by private tuition. In 1759 he seems to have discontinued his theological studies, and to have begun t he study of medicine. He soon attracted the notice of William Cullen, who engaged him as private tutor to his fami...

Monday, March 2, 2020

How to Make Homemade Vinegar

How to Make Homemade Vinegar You can make your own vinegar at home. Many people believe homemade vinegar tastes better than bottles from the store, plus you can customize the flavor with herbs and spices. What Is Vinegar? Vinegar is a product of the fermentation of alcohol by bacteria to produce acetic acid. The acetic acid is what gives vinegar its tangy flavor and also the ingredient that makes vinegar useful for household cleaning. Although you can use any alcohol for fermentation, you want to use ethanol to make vinegar you can drink and use in recipes. The ethanol can come from any number of sources, such as apple cider, wine, rice wine, fermented sugar cane, beer, honey and water, whiskey and water, or vegetable juice. Mother of Vinegar Vinegar can be produced slowly from fruit juice or fermented juice or quickly by adding a culture called Mother of Vinegar to alcoholic liquid. Mother of Vinegar is a slimy, harmless substance consisting mostly of acetic acid bacteria (Mycoderma aceti) and cellulose. You can purchase vinegar (e.g., unfiltered cider vinegar) that contains it if you want to make homemade vinegar very quickly. Otherwise, its easy to make vinegar more slowly without the culture. Any vinegar you make will contain Mother of Vinegar going forward and can be used to produce subsequent batches of vinegar more quickly. Slow Method Homemade Vinegar Recipe If youre starting from scratch and not using a culture to speed the fermentation of alcohol into vinegar, your best bet is to start with an ingredient that contains a low level of alcohol (no more than 5–10%) and no added sugar. Apple cider, wine, fermented fruit juice, or stale beer make a perfect starting material. Regarding cider, you can start with fresh apple cider or hard cider. Fresh cider takes a few weeks to convert to vinegar because it first ferments into hard cider before becoming vinegar. Pour the starting liquid into a glass or stoneware jar or bottle. If you are using glass, try to select a dark bottle. Fermentation occurs in the dark, so you either need a dark container or else need to keep the liquid in a dark place. The advantage of a clear bottle is that you can see what is happening when you check the vinegar, but you need to keep it darkened the rest of the time.The fermentation process requires air, yet you dont want insects and dust getting into your recipe. Cover the mouth of the bottle with a few layers of cheesecloth and secure them with a rubber band.Place the container in a dark, warm place. You want a temperature of 60-80Â °F (15-27Â °C). Fermentation occurs more quickly at a warmer temperature. The length of time needed to convert the alcohol to acetic acid depends on the temperature, composition of the starting material, and availability of acetic acid bacteria. The slow process takes anywhere from 3 weeks to 6 months. Initially, the bacteria will cloud the liquid, eventually forming a gelatinous layer on the top of the starting material- thats the Mother of Vinegar. The bacteria need air to remain active, so its best to avoid disturbing or stirring the mixture. After 3-4 weeks, test a small amount of the liquid to see if it has converted to vinegar. First, smell the covered bottle. If the vinegar is ready, it should smell like strong vinegar. If the bottle passes this initial test, unwrap the cheesecloth, draw off a little liquid, and taste it. If the vinegar passes the taste test, its ready to be filtered and bottled. If you dont like the taste, replace the cheesecloth and allow the solution to sit longer. You can check it weekly or monthly if its not ready. Note: a bottle with a spigot at the bottom makes the taste test much easier since you can remove a little liquid without disturbing the Mother of Vinegar forming at the top of the container.Now youre ready to filter and bottle your homemade vinegar. Filter the liquid through a coffee filter or cheesecloth. If you plan to make more vinegar, keep some of the slimy material on the filter. This new Mother of Vinegar can be used to speed the production of future batches. The liquid you collect is the vinegar. Since homemade vinegar typically contains a small amount of residual alcohol, you may wish to boil the liquid to drive off the alcohol. Also, boiling the vinegar kills any undesirable microorganisms. Its also perfectly acceptable to use the freshly filtered, unpasteurized vinegar. Unpasteurized vinegar will have a shorter shelf life and should be refrigerated.Unpasteurized (fresh) vinegar may be stored in sterilized, sealed jars in a refrigerator for a few months.To pasteurize vinegar, heat it to 170Â °F (77Â °C) and maintain the temperature for 10 minutes. This can be achieved easily in a crock pot if you dont want to babysit a pot on the stove and monitor its temperature. Pasteurized vinegar may be stored in sealed, sterilized containers for several months at room temperature. Fast Method Using Mother of Vinegar The fast method is much like the slow method, except you have a culture of bacteria to speed the process. Simply add some Mother of Vinegar to the jug or bottle with the fermented liquid. Proceed as before, and expect the vinegar to be ready in days to weeks. Vinegar With Herbs Before bottling your vinegar, you can add herbs and spices to add flavor and visual appeal. Add a packed cup of dry herbs to a pint of vinegar. Pour the herbs and vinegar into a clear bottle or jar. Cover the container and place it in a sunny window. Shake the bottle once a day. When the flavor is sufficiently strong, you can use the vinegar as it is or else strain it and place it into fresh bottles. Fresh ingredients, such as garlic, chives, and celery, may be used to flavor vinegar. Garlic cloves typically are too big to be fully preserved by the vinegar, so remove them after allowing 24 hours for it to flavor the vinegar. You can dry fresh herbs to add to vinegar. Dill, basil, tarragon, mint, and/or chives are popular choices. Rinse the herbs and hang them to dry or else place them on a sheet of waxed paper onto a cookie sheet to dry in the sun or a warm oven. Remove the herbs from heat once the leaves start to curl.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Discuss the origin and current situation of the Taiwan issue and the Essay

Discuss the origin and current situation of the Taiwan issue and the possible resolutions for Chinese government handling the Ta - Essay Example The United States 7th Fleet was tasked with patrolling the Taiwan Strait to stop a raid of Taiwan. Americans offered military and economic aid, and, in 1954, a joint security agreement was reached with the China’s Republic as part of America’s Cold War strategy of suppression of the Beijing government. However, military and financial aid was restricted to what Taiwan required to defend and finance itself against the People’s Republic of China, but not to hold up Chiang Kai-shek’s vision of â€Å"going back to the mainland.† The regime created, in 1949, on Taiwan, had provincial and national levels (Cole 4). The state level, with selected, as well as appointed officials from the mainland, represented itself as the Republic of China in global forums and apparently arranged for a go back to rule the entire mainland. Part 2: the current situation 2. Controversy of sovereignty over Taiwan i) Position of the People's Republic of China (PRC) The position o f PRC is that the Republic of China (ROC) stopped being a lawful regime after the founding of PRC on October 1st, 1949 and that they are the successor of ROC as the only lawful regime of China with the right to manage Taiwan with regards to the â€Å"succession of states† theory (Bush and O'Hanlon 23). The stand of PRC is that they and ROC are two diverse groups in the Chinese Civil War that never lawfully subsided. Hence, PRC argues that the two groups belong to one sovereign nation, China. Because Taiwan’s independence belongs to China, then PRC’s regime, along with its supporters, deem that the secession of the island should be settled upon by the 1.3 billion citizens of China rather than just the 23 million citizen of ROC who, at the moment, live in Taiwan (Bush and O'Hanlon 23). In addition, PRC states that the UN’s Resolution by its General Assembly recognizes that PRC controls China’s entire terrain including Taiwan. UN further classifies th is matter through acknowledging PRC as they only legal representatives of China. Therefore, PRC considers that it is within its lawful capacity to prolong its jurisdiction of Taiwan through any means possible (Bush and O'Hanlon 24). Furthermore, the stand of the People’s Republic of China is that ROC does not fulfill the fourth principle of the Montevideo Convention. PRC argued that the Montevideo Convention was agreed upon by only 19 states at the 17th Global Conference of American States (Bush and O'Hanlon 24). Therefore, the authority of the United Nations and the United States should supersede the Montevideo Convention. ii) Position of the Republic of China (ROC) ROC, on the other hand, claims that it maintains all the traits of a nation and that it was succeeded or replaced by PRC since it is still in existence even after PRC’s establishment. In line with the Montevideo Convention (1933), the mainly consulted source for the meaning of statehood, a nation should po ssess a defined territory, a permanent population, a regime, as well as a capacity to start relations with other nations (Bush 33). ROC affirms to meet all these principles since it has a government practicing successful jurisdiction over clear territories

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Organizational change in the face of profitability drop in McDonalds Essay

Organizational change in the face of profitability drop in McDonalds Corporation - Essay Example It is evidently clear from the discussion that it is undisputable fact that change is inevitable and one of the most fundamental processes of any organization. Presently, than ever before, organizations face rapid change. Globalization and increased expectations of customers and employees, competition, technological advancements, and need to boost profitability is what have made change to be inevitable in organizations. Besides, more concern by stakeholders of organizations has prompted the management to adopt change strategies in order to convince the stakeholders that they are capable of achieving the organizational objectives. However, various studies have shown that despite the fact that change is inevitable and most companies management are planning and implementing change, the process of managing change is proving a great challenge. According to Isern and Pung, leaders rarely achieve their objectives when they have embarked on a major effort of change in their respective organi zations. They note that there are factors that distinguish successful and unsuccessful efforts to change. They argue that a true transformation within an organization is characterized by integration of different change types (commercial, operational, and organizational), sustained effort that last for longer periods, and high ambitions. Isern and Pung further note that numerous surveys have shown that have difficulty achieving intended results. According to a 2006 online survey by McKinsey Quarterly only 38 percent of the executives across the globe who responded reported to have had a complete success on the transformations they instituted in their organizations. A tenth of those who responded acknowledged that their organizational transformation efforts were completely unsuccessful (Isern and Pung, 2007, p.1). It is in the light of this that this discussion will critically evaluate using appropriate models, theories and practical interventions how a manager can successfully manage a ‘radical change’ within a complex organization. The evaluation will focus on radical change in regard to aspects such as a sharp drop or slide in profitability. The discussion will assess organizational change in the face of profitability drop in McDonald’s Corporation. Change Model Managing radical change within an organization may not be an easy task as various surveys have shown. Radical change may be prompted by various circumstances such as enticing new customers, fighting competition, and sharp drop in profitability. Since managing change needs to be done appropriately in order to be successful, it is important that certain model or models be adopted. In this case, and in particular reference to managing change in the face of drop of McDonald’s profitability, Kotter’s 8- Step Change Model will be used. Kotter (1996, p. 26) states the first step in managing change is through creation of urgency. Change will be of help to the company if the c ompany really wants it; therefore, there is need for development of sense of urgency. Burnes (2009, p.103) agrees with Kotter’s proposition of creation of urgency around a need by arguing that it is essential in motivating employees in the organization to get things moving. According to Kotter, creation of urgency entails the following; examining opportunities that can and should be exploited, identifying potential threats and developing scenarios of possible future happenings, giving of convincing and dynamic reasons so that people can talk and think about them, and requesting support of stakeholders, industry players, and customers so as to strengthen the argument about change. McDonald’

Friday, January 24, 2020

Healthy Living Essay -- Health essays research papers

Health is described as physical and mental well-being and freedom from disease, pain or defect. However, such descriptions only superficially define the actual meaning of health. There may be many occasions when individuals are not necessarily ill or in pain but may be overweight, stressed or emotionally unstable. Health is a quality of life involving dynamic interaction and interdependence among the individual’s physical state, their mental and emotional reactions, and the social context in which the individual exists. There are many factors that influence your health, but three major components contribute to general well-being: Self-awareness, a balanced diet and, regular physical activity. In order to lead a healthy lifestyle, it is essential that individuals constantly monitor their health. This involves not only physical, but also mental and emotional aspects of the body’s functioning, as they relate to the home, school, work, and leisure environments. If necessary changes are made sooner rather than later, then a stable, balanced and healthy lifestyle will be more consistently maintained. In fact, the World Health Organization says being healthy is feeling that there are few physical or emotional impediments to doing things in your life that you would like. For example, there are many people who are suffering from chronic illnesses who are healthy because they are able to maintain their creativity and vivacity when others cannot. It is evident that self-awareness enc...

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Potential Energy Essay

Potential Energy is a type of energy that does not involve motion. It is the energy that is stored up. The more work done to change an object’s position or shape, the more potential energy it has. For example, a person on a ladder has more potential energy than a person on the ground because they have done more work to get up there. Kinetic Energy Kinetic Energy is the energy of motion. The more work an object has done, the more kinetic energy it has. the amount of kinetic energy an object has can be calculated by the formula: KE = 1/2 MV2 It can be defined as the works needed to accelerate an object of a certain mass from rest to its stated velocity. Thermal Energy Thermal Energy is the energy an object has related to temperature. It comes from all of the energy of the particles in an object. Typically, objects with a higher temperature release more thermal energy than objects with a lower temperature because their atoms and molecules move faster. Within every energy conversion, there is thermal energy emitted.Chemical Energy Chemical Energy is the potential of a chemical substance to undergo a transformation through a chemical reaction. An example would be food that is digested becoming chemical energy or batteries and light bulbs. Chemical energy is released when the energy of a compound changes. Electrical Energy Electrical energy comes from negatively charges electrons. Usually, electrons are transferred through a wire. However, in some cases, such as lightning, electrons are not contained in a wire.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Teenage Pregnancy And Academic Failure Essay - 1708 Words

In August of 1997, researchers Joseph P. Allen, Susan Philliber, Scott Herrling, and Gabriel P. Kuperminc conducted an experimental study on teenage pregnancy and its negative effects. This experiment took place in the United States at 25 different testing sites nationwide. Before the construction of their study, the researchers began to take a particular interest in two social problems that they planned on correcting. The social problems they focused on were 1. teen pregnancy and 2. academic failure. Their goal was to prove that these two social problems directly correlated with one another as well as find a solution to the persistent lifelong consequences that come with these dilemmas. Therefore, the study â€Å"Preventing Teen Pregnancy and Academic Failure†¦Ã¢â‚¬  will describe these problems, develop a method to prevent the problems, and provide the results of their experiment. Their study begins by providing some context to the reader regarding teen pregnancy including: the financial burdens on both teenagers and society, sexually transmitted infections, and behavioral consequences for the teens and child. According to Joseph P. Allen, â€Å"the estimated total costs of teen parenthood may range from $9 - $29 billion dollars annually† (CITE) Not only is teen pregnancy a concern for these young parents, but it also directly effects society by taking tax payer’s dollars in order to support these individuals with basic needs and medical costs. This is why it is crucial to try andShow MoreRelatedTeenage Pregnancy Essay1238 Words   |  5 Pageswhat most people say, or think, when they hear about the pregnancy of an adolescent girl. Early pregnancy, commonly referred to as teenage pregnancy, is an ongoing crisis throughout the world. However, the United States has the highest rates of teen pregnancy in the world. 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